On deployments using two YCE servers or more, two YCE databases can be setup using master-master replication. This setup offers redundancy with instant fail over capabilities. Although the installation always creates a master-master configuration, the administrator can assign a primary and a secondary database server to each of the front-ends, allowing any combination of master-slave or master-master relationships.
At installation time, the capabilities and database relationships are defined on a per-server basis. The script
/opt/yce/system/yce_setup.pl is used set this up in a step-by-step process. This script must be invoked without any options to interact with the user and create the setup profile. This XML document is used in turn to create the configuration files for the various YCE components (like http, mysql, psmon, tftp, etc).
Invoking the script with the
-r option skips the interactive part and just creates the configuration files and restarts the various components.
In the sample session below, yce_setup.pl is used to add a second YCE system to an existing server. Both YCE systems support databases and font-end services, using their local databases as primary, an the other server databases as secondary.
A setup where the the database(s) are installed on dedicated YCE servers instead of shared front-end and database roles is fully supported and setup in the same fashion.
Note 1: It is essential that each database is assigned its own unique id. The default is '1'.
Note 2: NetYCE supports “MariaDB”, a database engine quite similar to Oracles' “MySql”. Since both are near-identical in setup - even the process is named “mysqld” - we refer commonly to MySql although the implementation is “MariaDB”.
$ yce_setup.pl Starting 'yce_setup' Read yce setup: '/opt/yce/etc/yce_setup.xml' Read network setup: '/opt/yce/etc/net_setup.xml' YCE servers currently in setup: # Hostname IP-address FQDN * 0) genie 172.17.10.21 genie.netyce.org Select the server# to Remove, or 'A' to add, 'C' to continue: [C] a Add new server Hostname for new server? specter Domain name for new server? netyce.org IP-address for new server? 172.17.10.20 YCE servers currently in setup: # Hostname IP-address FQDN * 0) genie 172.17.10.21 genie.netyce.org 1) specter 172.17.10.20 specter.netyce.org Select the server# to Remove, or 'A' to add, 'C' to continue: [C] YCE server roles: # Hostname Front-end SSL HTTPD URL Database Id * 0) genie yes http non-root name yes 1 1) specter Select the server# to change, 'C' to continue:  1 'specter' is a Front-end server? [N] y 'specter' uses SSL (y/n)? [N] 'specter' https runs as root (y/n)? [Y] n 'specter' is DNS resolvable (y/n)? [N] y 'specter' is a Database server? [N] y Database-id for this database (1/2)?  2 YCE server roles: # Hostname Front-end SSL HTTPD URL Database Id * 0) genie yes http non-root name yes 1 1) specter yes http non-root name yes 2 Select the server# to change, 'C' to continue:  c YCE server database mapping: # Hostname Db-Id Primary Secondary * 0) genie 1 genie specter 1) specter 2 specter genie Select the server# to change, 'C' to continue:  c Wiki setup: 'genie' will use the NetYCE public Wiki server? [Y] y # # YCE Server overview: # Name Domain IP-address Database Front-end Primary-db Secondary-db # ---- ------ ---------- -------- --------- ---------- ------------ # genie netyce.org 172.17.10.21 id=1 yes genie specter # specter netyce.org 172.17.10.20 id=2 yes specter genie # Create the YCE, httpd, and mysql configuration files for the desired systems each will be created in /opt/yce/etc * 0) 'genie' 1) 'specter' Select server# to create, 'A' for all, 'C' to complete:  c Updating 'genie' tool-tree (C) Updating 'genie' menu-tree (C) Updating 'genie' encryption keys Restarting 'yce_xch' (/usr/bin/sudo /opt/yce/system/init/yce_xch) Restarting 'yce_skulker' (/usr/bin/sudo /opt/yce/system/init/yce_skulker) Restarting 'yce_tftp' (/usr/bin/sudo /opt/yce/system/init/yce_tftp) Restarting 'yce_sched' (/usr/bin/sudo /opt/yce/system/init/yce_sched) Done
yce_setup script created the file
/opt/yce/etc/yce_setup.xml. The information in this file is considered leading in the YCE configuration file creation process, which can be invoked separately by invoking
The file created by the sample yce_setup session above resulted in:
<setup> <override> <configs crontab="update" httpd="update" mysql="update" network="update" /> <daemons yce_ibd="disable" yce_nccmd="enable" /> </override> <yce name="genie"> <database database_id="1" type="mysql" /> <host domainname="netyce.org" fqdn="genie.netyce.org" hostname="genie" /> <httpd mode="non-root" proto="http" type="apache" urlbase="name" /> <net ipv4="172.17.10.21" /> <roles database="yes" frontend="yes" /> <wiki domain="netyce.com" ip="" local="no" name="yce-wiki" proto="http" /> <yce_db primary_db="genie" secondary_db="specter" /> </yce> <yce name="specter"> <database database_id="2" type="mysql" /> <host domainname="netyce.org" fqdn="specter.netyce.org" hostname="specter" /> <httpd mode="non-root" proto="http" type="apache" urlbase="name" /> <net ipv4="172.17.10.20" /> <roles database="yes" frontend="yes" /> <yce_db primary_db="specter" secondary_db="genie" /> </yce> </setup>
Once both (database) systems are defined and activated (a running MySql or MariaDB server), the YCE database must be installed on these servers in such a way that the master-master replication can be initialized.
This is accomplished using the YCE front-end. The “Admin - System” menu offers two tools to manage the system and its databases. The “System status” tool provides an overview of the various YCE servers and their capabilities as provided by the yce_setup.xml document. It includes a section on the “Database status” regarding the replication and its synchronization.
The “Db archives” tool is used to manage the database archives, the (automatic) backups and restores. To install an archive with replication, first requires an archive. This archive can be a download sample NetYCE database, any of the available historical archives listed in the tool, or the current running database. The basic procedure is identical for all cases, only the 'current database' needs some preparation.
There are a few reasons why the 'current database' should be re-installed with replication in mind:
o First time setup of a replicating database
o Non-recoverable Synchronization failure.
After a system crash, networking problem or database corruption one or both YCE databases may report (System status) that the databases are out-of-sync and cannot be automatically resolved or the backlog is too large. In that case, the YCE application manager needs to determine which database should be considered leading. Normally it is quite evident that one database lags the other due to the synchronisation problem. Then proceed to the 'Leading' database server and create a manual archive of that database. Provide a proper description to indicate its origin and purpose (e.g. “Resynchronisation from Genie-server”).
Note: See the paragraph on “Repairing table data” in case of extensive out-of-sync situations.
With the desired archive located or created, the procedure to install these archives and initiate the synchronization is as follows:
Set ignore flagbutton for this process, then
Stop yce_skulker. This prevents database change-over and replication-verifications db changes during the restores.
Start replication slavebutton. First on one server, then the other.
Skip SQL replication errorbutton if available, notice the size of the backlog to see if repeated use is sensible.
If it is suspected that there are (extensive) differences between two out-of-sync databases that need to be resolved before one database can be defined the 'leading' and be restored, the cli tool
/opt/yce/system/ck_dbsync.pl can be used.
It allows for table-by-table, row-by-row compare and updates between two YCE databases that have been setup for replication. The tool can therefore also be used to determine if the synchronization of one or all tables is truly “in-sync”.
$ ck_dbsync.pl -h Compare data between synced YCE databases usage: /opt/yce/system/ck_dbsync.pl options options -x -s -x -c -x -k [-r] [-t table_name] -x -u [-r] [-T] [-t table_name] -x -L [-r] -x -F [-r] -x -R -x -Q -x execute: mandatory option. Just to prevent accidental use -s summary: return row count and size of each table -c check tables: defragment and/or repair. Only on local database -k keys only. Insert missing records from PRI into SEC -u update full. Insert and update all SEC records from PRI -T update using timestamps. If PRI timestamp is more recent than SEC (use with -u) -t table table-name only. Use 'db.table_name' or 'table_name' format -r reverse: switch PRI (default local) and SEC (remote) databases -L lookup: reset Job, Task and other ID's (after finishing table updates!) -F force: reset the master and slave configuration for PRI <- SEC -R repair-all: perform a sequence to full-repair using cycles of the various options for both databases (-F, -uT, -L, -F). -Q repair-quick: perform a sequence to key-repair using cycles of the various options for both databases (-F, -k, -L, -F). -h help: this help message The '-x' option is mandatory
On larger tables the processing is time consuming (e.g. 20 minutes) and cpu intensive (e.g. 95% cpu for mysqld). So it is best not performed during production hours.
It is highly recommended to create a manual backup archive of the databases (yes, both) before using the 'update' option. If mistakes are made as to the direction of the update (which db is considered leading), it can only be undone by restoring it.
When using the update option (
-u), please be aware that all SQL update and insert statements will be executed directly on the local or remote database. When replication is in operation these operations will also be synced - usually resulting in a synchronisation error due to a key violation. (If a missing record is added remotely, the replication will also try to install it locally - where it already existed).
In general, when using this tool to update tables, the resulting database should afterwards be re-installed for synchronization using the above procedure. Alternatively the ck_dbsync tool can be used to reset the replication
log files and administration using its
This tool also logs all actions in the file
/var/opt/yce/logs/ck_dbsync.log and auto-rotates each run. The SQL statements are logged in
Please consult the page NetYCE Database Re-synchronization procedure for a detailed procedure how to use this tool.
The replication schema is based on a setup where the database servers are both a Master and a Slave. SQL UPDATE and INSERT statements executed on one database are forwarded to the other (the master function) where the SQL statement in turn is executed as well (the slave function). If both databases do this properly, the databases stay in sync.
The technical implementation involves 'binlog' files on the master and a slave that maintains its position in the binlog it is reading from. Should the connection between the databases be lost for a while, the slave stopped or the database temporarily be down (like doing backups), nothing gets lost since the backlog can be processed at any time.
To create and process the binlogs, each database server has a configuration what databases and tables to replicate.
This configuration is maintained in the mysql configuration file,
The relevant section is shown below:
# Replication Master Server # binary logging is required for replication log-bin = mysql-bin binlog-ignore-db = alerts # use no checksums when replicating against pre-5.6 versions # binlog-checksum = none # Replication Slave replicate-wild-do-table = YCE.% replicate-wild-do-table = NMS.% replicate-wild-do-table = NCCM.% replicate-wild-do-table = CMDB.% replicate-ignore-db = mysql replicate-ignore-db = alerts
If (permanent) changes need to be made to the replication it should be done by editing this configuration file.
The entries like
replicate-wild-do-table = YCE.% define that all tables of the database 'YCE' should be replicated. Adding or removing such a line will add or remove the replication setup.
It is essential that the replication setup of both servers are identical! Changes made on one server should be copied on the other.
The change becomes effective when the mysql server is restarted.
[email protected] /opt/yce/etc $ go restart mysql restarting Daemon 'mysqld' mysqld: 28544 28738 kill: /usr/bin/sudo /sbin/service mysql stop wait stop 'mysqld': spawn: /usr/bin/sudo /sbin/service mysql start wait start 'mysqld': 10202 10396 done
/etc/my.cnf file is auto-generated by the
yce_setup.pl script, care should be taken that the manual changes are not undone at the next NetYCE update. This is accomplished by informing the setup script it may not overwrite the mysql configuration.
This requires a small alteration of the configuration file
The example below shows the top section:
<setup> <override> <configs crontab="update" httpd="update" mojo="update" mysql="update" network="update" /> <daemons vsftpd="enable" yce_ibd="disable" yce_nccmd="enable" /> </override>
The modification consists of changing
<setup> <override> <configs crontab="update" httpd="update" mojo="update" mysql="keep" network="update" /> <daemons vsftpd="enable" yce_ibd="disable" yce_nccmd="enable" /> </override>
The above directions serve to make permanent changes to the replication schema. It is also possible to briefly change it. These directions follow below. Keep in mind though, the change is lost when the mysql process is stopped. This regularly happens daily for a maintenance backup between 23:00 and 24:00.
The required mysql superuser password will not be shared here. Please contact a technical NetYCE representative to obtain it.
Execute the steps below using the NetYCE functional account,
These steps illustrate to remove the NCCM and CMDB databases from the replication schema.
[email protected] /opt/yce/bin $ mysql -u netYCE -p Enter password: Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MariaDB connection id is 12302 Server version: 10.0.32-MariaDB MariaDB Server Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. MariaDB [(none)]>
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS \G *************************** 1. row *************************** Slave_IO_State: Connecting to master Master_Host: 188.8.131.52 Master_User: replication Master_Port: 3306 Connect_Retry: 60 ::: Replicate_Ignore_DB: mysql,alerts Replicate_Do_Table: Replicate_Ignore_Table: Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: YCE.%,NMS.%,NCCM.%,CMDB.% Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: ::: 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]> STOP SLAVE; Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]> SET GLOBAL Replicate_Wild_Do_Table = "YCE.%,NMS.%"; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS \G *************************** 1. row *************************** Slave_IO_State: Master_Host: 184.108.40.206 Master_User: replication Master_Port: 3306 Connect_Retry: 60 ::: Replicate_Ignore_DB: mysql,alerts Replicate_Do_Table: Replicate_Ignore_Table: Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: YCE.%,NMS.% Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: ::: 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]> START SLAVE; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]> \q Bye [email protected] /opt/yce/bin $